This is one of the biggest problems for me in the Quran.  The Quran paints a picture of the world that seems incorrect.  It describes the world in such a way that a 7th-century person in Arabia would have described it.  It does not describe the world according to the way the Creator of the Universe would have known it.

Ancient Cosmology2

Or if we go by what makes more sense, maybe it wasn’t written by God. Maybe it was actually written by a man in the 7th century?

If you look at the verses that mention the sun’s orbit (Falak, which means rounded or curved course) it is almost always in the context of night and day. It looks much more likely that the meaning is that the sun takes its path every day rather than that it is talking about its orbit around the galaxy once every 225 million years, which has no relevance to human timescales.

If you look at these verses it seems that the sun’s path can be seen by the bedouins listening to Muhammad

Do you not see that Allah causes the night to enter the day and causes the day to enter the night and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term, and that Allah, with whatever you do, is Acquainted? (Quran 31:29)

and is a token (ayat – sign) that the listeners should be able to understand:

A token unto them is night. We strip it of the day, and lo! they are in darkness and the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise. And for the moon We have appointed mansions till she return like an old shrivelled palm-leaf. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit. (Quran 36:37-40)

Read:-

Did the Qur’anic authors borrow information of science from external sources?

Is Religion Outdated in the Twenty-First Century?

Scientific Errors In The Qur’an

The Expanding Universe vs Quran

 

Again it is mentioned in the context of the night-day cycle.  Or look at this verse:

And the moon darkens And the sun and the moon are joined (Quran 75:8-9)

This would require the moon to fly 98 million miles into the sun, which is 600 times the diameter of the moon. It would be a very strange apocalyptic plan but is much more plausible as something a 7th-century person would imagine, as it looks to them as if the sun and moon are about the same size and distance from the earth. Related to this are verses that say:

By the sun and his brightness, And the moon when she followeth him (Quran 91:1-2)

It all fits very well with the view that a 7th century Arab would have that the sun and moon are about the same size and distance and traverse a similar path across the sky.

This is one issue.  The Quran repeatedly refers to the sky as if its a solid structure or object.  It even talks about how Allah “holds up” the sky, the firmament, and prevents it from falling on us.

Do you not see that Allah has subjected to you whatever is on the earth and the ships which run through the sea by His command? And He restrains the sky from falling upon the earth, unless by His permission. Indeed Allah , to the people, is Kind and Merciful.
(Quran 22:65)

It is Allah who erected the heavens without pillars that you [can] see; then He established Himself above the Throne and made subject the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term. He arranges [each] matter; He details the signs that you may, of the meeting with your Lord, be certain. (Quran 13:2)

And constructed above you seven strong [heavens]
(Quran 78:12)

babylonian

This picture describes the Babylonian universe.    As you can see they also believed in multiple heavens with the water above it..

The same idea existed in the Bible too.  There is this idea of a physical firmament.

Then there is the issue of the sun going below the throne of Allah.  Prophet Muhammad seemed to have thought that the sun went somewhere when it set and that somewhere was below the throne of Allah.  Yet in reality the sun is actually not setting, but rather the Earth is rotating in a certain way so that it seems to be set.  Apologists, of course, will try to make sense of this in some way or another, but the most obvious and apparent meaning is that Prophet Muhammad misunderstood how the world worked.  In today’s age where we know that the sun sets on our part of the world, but its actually rising on another part, it’s hard to make sense of this explanation

And the sun runs [on course] toward its stopping point. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.
(Quran 36:38)

This verse was explained by the Prophet:

Abu Dharr reported:
I asked the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) the (implication of the) words of Allah, the Exalted: The sun glides to its appointed resting place. He replied: Its appointed resting place is under the Throne.
(Muslim 1.309)

And in more detail here where the Prophet actually was with Abu Dharr when the sunset, and he explained to him where the sun goes:

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) one day said:

Do you know where the sun goes? They replied: Allah and His Apostle know best. He (the Holy Prophet) observed: Verily it (the sun) glides till it reaches its resting place under the Throne. Then it falls prostrate and remains there until it is asked: Rise up and go to the place whence you came, and it goes back and continues emerging out from its rising place and then glides till it reaches its place of rest under the Throne and falls prostrate and remains in that state until it is asked: Rise up and return to the place whence you came, and it returns and emerges out from it rising place and the it glides (in such a normal way) that the people do not discern anything ( unusual in it) till it reaches its resting place under the Throne. Then it would be said to it: Rise up and emerge out from the place of your setting, and it will rise from the place of its setting. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said. Do you know when it would happen? It would happen at the time when faith will not benefit one who has not previously believed or has derived no good from the faith. (Muslim 1:306)

Okay, we know that the sun does not actually set.  It does not actually go anywhere.  It’s staying in the same relative spot while the Earth spins around it.  Note: Technically all of us are hurling through space, but this point is irrelevant to our discussion here
sun moonSource: Tumblr

What if Allah didn’t want to freak out the people by describing the world in a way they didn’t understand? Well, he already did that when He told them that they will be raised up after death.  When the Prophet claimed he went to Jerusalem in one night.  So that obviously can’t be the reason.

Maybe Allah didn’t want to correct the scientific misunderstandings of the time?

To me, this is one of the biggest issues in the Quran.  I cannot see how the creator of the universe would describe the world in such an awkward and incorrect way.  He could have said it in a way that was vague enough so that it wouldn’t have upset the people of the time, yet still be true to this day.

Our observations, in this case our reading of biblical and Qur’anic statements about the natural world, look exactly as you would expect them to look if there was no new knowledge being revealed—just what was the human understanding of the day. That is, they look as if there is no God who speaks to humanity through scriptures or other revelations.  (quote from Victor Stenger, God the failed hypothesis)

We have to ask, why would God

  1. Allow information in the book that seems wrong
  2. Repeatedly describe the world in a way that is accurate to 7th-century humans but inaccurate to us
  3. Allow confusion in a way that those in the future have to reinterpret the words in order to make them make sense

If the punishment is so severe, eternal damnation for eternity, why allow such doubts into His book?

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One thought on “Flat Earth and Geocentric Universe in Quran”

  1. Praise be to Allaah,

    I will not let falsehood spread, for it spreads like a plague/disease. I will answer and refute all his allegations.

    Ozzy ChaudRy look, the Quran clearly quotes:
    “The shape of the Earth is like the egg of an Ostrich.” Which has been proved to be Geo Spherical today.

    Firstly:
    “And the moon darkens And the sun and the moon are joined (Quran 75:8-9)”
    You and I both know very well that this is an explanation of what will happen on the Day of Judgement and has nothing to do with being a ‘contradiction’. A God who can create that universe can do that too.
    And nowhere does the Quran say “The sun and the moon are of the same size” Thats what you claimed and is a blatent lie.

    Secondly:
    “As you can see they also believed in multiple heavens with the water above it..
    The same idea existed in the Bible too. There is this idea of a physical firmament.”
    Let me tell you, no Christian in the world believes that there are 7 Heavens, rather they believe in One heaven (read the Christian Bible) and the Babylonian conception states with ‘water’ above it while Islam suggests nothing like that. They are 7 well built Heaven and our universe is framed within the first Heaven and the geocentric style is very different from former myths and conceptions.
    Don’t act like a fool now..
    Show me the Quranic verse which says in there words “The Earth is flat”, and I bet you’ll fail. Because there isn’t one. But youre lying and spreading false stuff about Idlan, this is why the torment if Hell was created. Wait I’ll answer everything don’t worry, because the same book quotes:
    “When Truth is hurled against falsehood, falsehood perishes for falsehood by (its) nature is bound to perish.”
    Earth being flat and the centre; that was what Pythagoras claimed not Quran. Get your facts straight, and quote in context.

    Thirdly:
    “Then there is the issue of the sun going below the throne of Allah. Prophet Muhammad seemed to have thought that the sun went somewhere when it set and that somewhere was below the throne of Allah. Yet in reality the sun is actually not setting, but rather the Earth is rotating in a certain way so that it seems to be set. Apologists, of course, will try to make sense of this in some way or another, but the most obvious and apparent meaning is that Prophet Muhammad misunderstood how the world worked. In today’s age where we know that the sun sets on our part of the world, but its actually rising on another part, it’s hard to make sense of this explanation.

    And the sun runs [on course] toward its stopping point. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.
    (Quran 36:38)”

    The Hadith is indeed authentic.
    But what you said “The Earth rotates but for the sun its hard to explain”
    Now read this, proved after 1400 years. As Allah says “..each (sun and moon) is floating in Its own orbit.” Science has proved that.
    https://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question18.html
    Refer to the source, and your argument is weak, do your research the sun does set as IT IS IN MOTION. Source: I mentioned above.
    Plus, “Then it would be said to it: Rise up and emerge out from the place of your setting, and it will rise from the place of its setting. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said. Do you know when it would happen? It would happen at the time when faith will not benefit one who has not previously believed or has derived no good from the faith. (Muslim 1:306)”

    This is the Cosmic crunch mentioned in a Nutshell which will cause the sun to rise from the West. Go and study what the Cosmic crunch is then argue. And this claim is only of Islam no other religion has made this claim, so you cant refute this idea framed in simple words to be copied.

    Fourthly:
    “It’s staying in the same relative spot while the Earth spins around it.” (The biggest contradiction in your knowledge).
    Its a contradiction in your knowledge not in The Quran. Dude, when you realize the Truth, accept it. You can’t run away from it. The link I posted above states very well that the sun is in motion and it was discovered no earlier than the 20th century, and is ckearly mentioned in the Hoky Quran.

    Ancient Greek philosophers stayed that “The Earth was stationary, and it was the center of the universe” but the Quran does not make any such claim, tgere is no verse like that.
    Please man, don’t destroy your life. If you really want to learn, study hard and study more and deal with people honestly. Don’t try to fool them, turn back while you still have the chance. For this life is just enjoyment of delusion and what is to come will be better for you, if you turn back and restrain from evil.
    “How did Hazrat Muhammad PBUH travel to Jerusalem and even to the sky overnight?”
    Well, for that you need to understand the concepts of “Quantum physics”, “Time portals”, “supernatural occurrences” and “God’s power”
    For further detail, refer to this explanation. ‘How the incident took place overnight and what does Quantum physics say’:
    https://youtu.be/MsjUSSsEAdo

    If you are to be truthful. The term “Maarij” literally means openings and portals, used by Angels to travel. Its even a chapter in the Quran. And by God swearing by sun and the koon NEVER MEANS that they’re of the same size, dont make your own conceptions which aren’t in The Quran. And Angels don’t have to fly like birds and cross seven skys overnight.

    Fifthly:

    “We have to ask, why would God
    Allow information in the book that seems wrong
    Repeatedly describe the world in a way that is accurate to 7th-century humans but inaccurate to us
    Allow confusion in a way that those in the future have to reinterpret the words in order to make them make sense
    If the punishment is so severe, eternal damnation for eternity, why allow such doubts into His book?”

    “Why would God allow wrong information?” Sigh my dude you couldn’t prove a single verse wrong, you even failed with the Hadiths, though all are not authentic.
    “Accurate to 7th century humans but inaccurate to us” because the book was meant for all time and the people without scientific advancement deserved it more than we do, because they were present at that time. As The Bible quotes: “God is not the author of confusion”; you’re the one creating confusion God has made everything crystal clear, and you know what’s the Truth yet you choose to turn away.

    For example, If God mentioned in Surah Anbiyah instead of “Do the unbelievers not see that the Heavens and the Earth were joined together in an entity and we split them asunder.”; If he mentioned “Do the unbelievers not see that there was a primary nebula and due to secondary separation a secondary nebula was formed which resulted in the big bang”; Honestly speaking it would not be fair enough for the people of the 7th century and they would find it weird..

    Big bang in a nutshell, yet you deny it. Not all the scientific facts were known at that time and I do agree that a few Theories were present of a round universe etc. but the accuracy of the Quran in its words and terms still remains unchallenged.
    That’s a separate thing if you don’t understand the Quran but this is something else. “Allow confusion”, right now you are creating confusion due to lack of knowledge and understanding, not God. Now you have to repent from it, if you are to he true.
    “Punishment so severe.” Indeed because Hellfire is a truth no one can deny. Go extinguish the fire of Hellfire and if you cannot, and By Allah you cannot, then fear the fire of which He SWT warns you of, for it is the final abode of those who don’t repent and change their ways, liars, hypocrites and those who follow a lie with no clear proof or authority.

    Like right now, you aren’t speaking the Truth and you’re simply publicizing falsehood, this is the primary reason Hellfire was created, God knows what His creations are like this. And if you deny and forget Him, He SWT will abandon and forget you also. He loves you like you love Him. That’s all you wrote in that imprecise and weak article sorry to say. In the end I would say:
    “Disappointed but not surprised.”

    //End quote//

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